Leaf diseases have greater yield effects when present in the growing crop tonnes cane. Sugarcane is a glycophyte, sucrose storing member of tall growing perennial monocotyledonous grass. Ggsd is very similar to grassy shoot disease gsd, first seen in india in the 1940s. Elimination of sugarcane grassy shoot disease through apical meristem culture. Differentiation of phytoplasmas associated with sugarcane and. Pdf detection of sugarcane grassy shoot phytoplasma.
We isolated the full length potc gene of atpbinding cassette abc. A rapid method for enrichment and isolation of sugarcane grassy shoot scgs phytoplasma from the infected plants was developed. Phytoplasmainfected sugarcane plants show a proliferation of tillers, which give it typical grassy appearance, hence the name grassy shoot disease. The grassy shoot disease gsd was first recorded by barber1919 from coimbatore. Major diseases sugarcane breeding institute, coimbatore. These organisms infest the phloem tissues in the sugarcane vascular bundles. Candidatus phytoplasma cynodontis, the phytoplasma. Green grassy shoot disease ggsd was recognized for the first time in thailand in the mid1990s. Isolation and comparative analysis of potc gene of the abc. Sugarcane grassy shoot scgs phytoplasma the disease causes production of numerous, thin, slender chlorotic tillers grassy shoots and chlorosis of leaves. Ppt sugarcane diseases powerpoint presentation free to. A novel phytoplasma subgroup strain scphy385 genbank accession number hf586648 was found associated with sugarcane grassy shoot scgs disease in india. Chapter 1 introduction in vitro approaches for improvement of sugarcane cultivar page 1 introduction sugarcane is an oldest crop known to man, a major crop of tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. The plants appear bushy and grass likedue to reduction in the length of internodes, premature and continuous tillering.
Saccharum, disease detection, etiology, nested pcr. Candidates for symbiotic control of sugarcane white leaf disease. Grassy shoot of sugarcane phytoplasma is found in the sieve cells of infected plants. This disease is associated with a scwlrelated phytoplasma and is presumed to be naturally spread by the leaihopper eumetopina flavipes. Sugarcane grassy shoot phytoplasma unsure causal agent diseases edit ramu stunt disease, a disease widespread throughout papua new guinea, but not detected in australia. Yellowing of foliage is the first symptom to be noticed by a grower when the stalk or leaves are infected by the pathogens if yellowing in germinated shoots is noticed, then it may be due to sett rot or red rot in case of sett rot, setts would be rotten with reddish discolouration of internal tissues and emitting a rotten pineapple odour blackening of the affected setts would also. This disease is caused by a phytoplasma, a bacterium without a cell wall, belonging to the class mollicutes that lives in the phloem of host plants and is. Differential filtration approach for isolation and enrichment. Disease problems of sugarcane in vietnam, with special.
Grassy shoot disease of sugarcane, sbi by kisan forum pvt. Adopting one or more of the following measures can minimize the disease incidence. May 26, 2012 sugarcane is an important cash crop in vietnam and has been widely promoted at national and provincial level. Sugarcanes belong to the grass family poaceae, an economically. Detection and molecular characterization of sugarcane grassy. Candidates for symbiotic control of sugarcane white leaf. The cane becomes stunted with reduced internodal length with axillary bud sprouting. Pdf elimination of sugarcane grassy shoot disease through. Sugarcane cultivation information guide asia farming.
It is the most dreaded disease of sugarcane which has caused the elimination of several important sugarcane varieties from cultivation. Read differentiation of phytoplasmas associated with sugarcane and gramineous weed white leaf disease and sugarcane grassy shoot disease by rflp and sequencing, tag theoretical and applied genetics on deepdyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips. Green grassy shoot disease ggsd sugar research australia. Aerated steam therapy ast treatment of seed cane for a period of 1 h at 50c is given to eliminate grassy shoot disease gsd incidence in sugarcane. Pdf diseased sugarcane in sri lanka is infected with.
The phytoplasmaassociated grassy shoot disease is one of the major threats in sugarcane cultivation. The present volume was intended to be a new edition of the book, but so many changes were required that a new book was needed. I was published by elsevier under the auspices of the international society of sugar cane technologists in 1961. Differential filtration approach was used to isolate and enrich the scgs phytoplasma and its genomic dna that was detected by pcr analysis for phytoplasmal 16s rdna. Sugarcane white leaf scwl disease, caused by a phytoplasma, is one of the most important diseases. Differentiation of phytoplasmas associated with sugarcane and gramineous weed white leaf disease and sugarcane grassy shoot disease by rflp and sequencing. Diseases of australian sugarcane field guide robert magarey. Two types of bodies are noticed, spherical bodies of 300400 nm diameter and filamentous bodies of 3053 mm diameter. The plants are two to six metres six to twenty feet tall with stout, jointed, fibrous stalks that are rich in sucrose, which accumulates in the stalk internodes. Diatraea saccharalis sugarcane borer is native to the western.
Pdf genetic diversity of sugarcane grassy shoot scgs. Biology sugarcane rootstock boer r au37 weevil sugarcane. Numerous pathogens infect sugarcane, such as sugarcane grassy shoot disease caused by phytoplasma, whiptail disease or sugarcane smut, pokkah boeng caused by fusarium moniliforme, xanthomonas axonopodis bacteria causes gumming disease, and red rot disease caused by colletotrichum falcatum. Gsd came into prominence when it was observed in co 419 near belapur maharashtra in 1949. Ramu stunt disease of sugarcane scrs is known to occur in papua new guinea. Sugarcane stores sucrose sugarcane pests and their management, figure 150 sugarcane. The leafhopper matsumuratettix hiriglyphicus is the first known vector that. By selecting health seed can control these diseases. The disease causes production of numerous, thin, slender chlorotic tillers grassy shoots and chlorosis of leaves. This disease is characterized by the production of numerous small and thin tillers having narrow leaves with or without albinism. Whip smut of sugarcane is a fungal disease caused y ustilago sacchari. Detection and molecular characterization of sugarcane. We applied nested polymerase chain reaction pcr using p1p7. The affected plantclump produces excessive, thin, short, lanky, albinoid tillers grass like no.
The infection causes reduction in leaf size, number, length and breadth of leaf lamina and premature proliferation of axillary buds. Detection of phytoplasmas causing grassy shoot disease in. Polymerase chain reaction technique was standardized for the detection of phytoplasmas causing grassy shoot disease gsd in sugarcane using two sets of forward and reverse primers of 16s rrna23s. Sep, 2012 the grassy shoot disease gsd of sugarcane occurs in most of the asian countries, affecting sugarcane production to a considerable level. Varieties co 6806, co 7219, co 7717, co 8208, co 85004, co 85019, co 86032 and coc 671 are suitable for salt affected soils. Different aerated steam therapy ast regimes on the. New subgroup 16srxif phytoplasma strain associated with. Differential filtration approach was used to isolate and enrich the scgs phytoplasma and its genomic dna that was detected by pcr analysis for. The present volume was intended to be a new edition of the book, but so many changes were required that a. An extensive volume of sugarcane diseases and their world distribution vol. Edis is the electronic data information source of ufifas extension, a collection of information on topics relevant to you.
Diseases sugarcane breeding institute, coimbatore, india. Nov 09, 2016 botanical name of sugarcne cane borers cane disease cane field cane sugar car bomb explosion centralamerica chichigalpa chichigalpa disease cycle of red rot of sugarcane disease of sugar disease. The tillers are small and yellowish white in colour. These results indicate that the scwl disease in baoshan is caused by a phytoplasma of the 6sr group xi. However, there are reports that this treatment was found ineffective in reducing gsd in plant crop to a significant level. Sugarcane grassy shoot scgs caused by scgsphytoplasmas is a serious disease of sugarcane. Above ground, the sugarcane leaf is composed of a leaf sheath which surrounds the stalk and a leaf blade. Lesion shape gives a substantial clue to the identity of the disease. The leaves of infected plants do not produce chlorophyll, and. The disease is caused by a phytoplasma specialzed bacteria. The disease is caused by grassy shoot phytoplasmas. The present study aimed at characterizing and comparing the potc gene of the coconut root wilt rwd and sugarcane grassy shoot scgs phytoplasmas with that of aster yellows ay phytoplasma. The analysis based on restriction fragment length polymorphism rflp profiles and 16s rrna gene.
Initial symptom appears in the young crop of 3 4 months age as thin papery white young leaves at the top of the cane. The severity degree and symptom variance are depended on soil fertility, temperature, cane sette quality, cultural practice and the phloemcolonized phytoplasma amount. Sugarcane is an important cash crop in vietnam and has been widely promoted at national and provincial level. Rogue out infected plants in the secondary and commercial seed nursery. These are transmitted from one plant to another and one field to another field either by original seed set or causal organism already in the soil or spores are carried by blowing wind. Sugarcane white leaf scwl is one of the most destructive of known sugarcane diseases in the asian region and has been reported in taiwan, sri lanka, the lao peoples democratic republic, and thailand 9, 18, 19, 25, 46. Root wilt disease of coconut and grassy shoot diseases of sugarcane are diseases associated with phytoplasmas of the 16srxi group. The key symptoms were the formation of green grassy shoots around the base of mature stools. The purpose of this study was to evaluate candidate bacterial symbionts for possible use as vehicles in the control of the disease. Excessive tillering that fails to develop into mature stalks. This disease is also transmitted by a mechanically by cutting knife, b insects aphids and c dodder root parasite. Sugarcane is a tropical and subtropical, perennial grass that forms lateral shoots at the base to produce multiple stems, typically 3 to 4 meters high and about 5 cm in diameter. Diseased plants exhibit varying degrees of loss of chlorophyll, ranging from total green to white.
Diseased sugarcane in sri lanka is infected with sugarcane grassy shoot andor sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma article pdf available in australasian plant disease notes 21. Dec 11, 2008 the phytoplasmaassociated grassy shoot disease is one of the major threats in sugarcane cultivation. Sugarcane grassy shoot disease scgs, caused by small, parasitic bacteria, contributes to losses of 5% to 20% in the main crop of sugarcane, and these losses are higher in the ratoon crop. Sugarcane white leaf scwl is the most destructive disease of sugarcane in thailand where major cane and sugar production of the world are situated. Diseases of australian sugarcane sugar research australia. Elimination of sugarcane grassy shoot disease sgsd through apical meristem culture technique for producing clean planting material of sugarcane has been attempted in the present study. The grassy shoot disease gsd of sugarcane occurs in most of the asian countries, affecting sugarcane production to a considerable level. Since the diseased plants exhibit various phenotypic symptoms under field conditions, diagnosis of the disease becomes difficult. Grassy shoot disease phytoplasma it is a mycoplasamal disease. If disease symptoms are visible within two weeks after planting, such plants can be replaced by healthy plants.
Infected plant produces larger number of thin leaved tillers like grass so known as grassy shoot. Can cause significant yield losses, with some milling areas in vietnam suffering 50% reductions in yield due to the disease. Hence, enhanced treatment duration from 1 h to 3 h at 50c and increased temperature regimes from 50 to 52 c for 1 h. The stems grow into cane stalk, which when mature contributes about 75% of the entire plant.
Later, white or yellow tillers appear in large number below these leaves profuse tillering. Diseases of australian sugarcane home sugar research. Caused by a phytoplasma a very small organism that lives in the phloem of the vascular bundles, the disease has caused serious yield losses in thailand. The grassy shoot disease is primarily transmitted through the diseased seed material and perpetuated through ratooning. Colletotrichum falcatum red rot is one of the oldest known diseases of sugarcane it occurs in most canegrowing countries complete loss to cane production in case of severe epidemic condition it continues to be a threat in certain subtropical countries. Differential filtration approach for isolation and. Differentiation of phytoplasmas associated with sugarcane.
Nested pcr assay for detection of sugarcane grassy shoot. In several sugarcanegrowing areas of india, sugarcane plants showing typical symptoms of sugarcane grassy shoot scgs disease as well as nonsymptomatic sugarcane plants and sugarcane with nonspecific yellowing and stunting symptoms were examined for phytoplasmal infections by means of polymerase chain reaction pcr technology, using primers. Sugarcane, or sugar cane are several species and hybrids of tall perennial grasses in the genus saccharum, tribe andropogoneae, that are used for sugar production. Virtual issue dickeya and pectobacterium diseases, detection and control. Virtual issue diseases of grapevine diversity, dynamics and control. Mar 04, 2016 grassy shoot disease in sugarcane cultivation.
A long whip like structure is developed from the apex of the stalk. Sugarcane white leaf disease characterization, diagnosis. With affected crop will have large number lean and lanky, pale sprouts in the clump appear like a bunchy grass. Another phytoplasmal disease of cane is sugarcane white leaf. Avoid ratooning if grassy shoot disease incidence is more than 15 % in the plant crop.1570 208 1541 1449 307 1081 1590 1146 568 988 1622 1494 290 1522 172 161 576 615 1159 37 365 314 377 230 798 779 1305 185